The family of Chrysanthemums is a very large one,
and contains such various orders that it must
be treated under several heads; the Annuals,
and the descendents of Chrysanthemum Indicum,
which can hardly be classed with either of these.
2 to 3 feet.
Colours various; flowering July to September.
Easily grown plants with daisy-shaped flowers,
a circle of flat petals surrounding a yellow disc.
The seed should be sown in the open, a little
later than the bulk of the hardy annuals; say
the first week of April. The seedlings must be
thinned vigorously. The best kinds are the hybrids
of Chrysanthemum Carinatum, such as tricolour, Burrigdeanum
(flowers with concentric circles of red, yellow
and white), Morning Star (pale yellow), purpureum
(purple shades). These are single flowers. The
Chrysanthemum Coronarium breed are bolder-growing plants
with single and double flowers, yellow and white.
The gardener who does not care to grow separate
sorts, should buy a packet of mixed seed of good
strains; most seeds men supply a blend which they
call “Special Mixture” and this, if
from a genuine firm, will satisfy his needs.
The garden counterparts of the Ox-eyes or Moon
Daisies of the fields, with single flowers whose
yellow centre is surrounded by white petals. They
vary a good deal in height and in time of flowering,
which extends from June to the November frosts.
They are all absolutely hardy, not particular
to soil, but enjoy a deep root-run and an open
situation. Pieces of the root should be planted
from November to March; the only after-care that
the clumps should need is a good soaking in very
dry weather and the support of a stake and a girth
of tar-string if the stems show signs of toppling
in wind or rain. The plants are insatiable feeders,
and quickly exhaust the ground; they should be
broken up and replanted on fresh soil every third
year. The following are some of the best sorts:
• Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum grandiflorum. 3 feet.
July and August.
• Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum Daviesii. Earliest flowering,
May and June.
• Chrysanthemum Maximum (or atratum). Eighteen inches.
Large flowers on stiff stems. June to September.
• Chrysanthemum Maximum. Margaret Marwood. 2 feet.
Very large flowers. June to September.
• Chrysanthemum Uliginosum. (Pyrethrum uliginosum).
5 to 6 feet, October and November. The latest
Ox-eye; a very strong grower, forming when well
established a great sheaf of flowers.
Under the perennial Chrysanthemums must be classed
the tender kind Frutescens, commonly called Marguerite
or Paris Daisy, largely used as a summer bedding
plant. There are two varieties, one with finely-cut
bluish-green foliage, and white daisy-flowers,
and the other with stronger leaves, and the flowers
of a sulphur yellow with darker centre. Both form
during the summer large bushes with woody stems.
If taken up carefully and potted before the autumn
frosts they will continue to flower for some weeks
in a greenhouse or a room. They are propagated
by cuttings, small firm shoots being slipped off
from the plants in August or early September (avoid
sappy tops and flowering sprays) and dibbled in
boxes of sandy soil. The boxes must be kept fairly
moist for a fortnight or so; they should be stored
through the winter in a frame or greenhouse secure
from frost, but in a cool atmosphere. In March
the plants may be shifted into small pots, re-potted
if necessary, and should be put out with the rest
of the bedding plants at the end of May.
Chrysanthemum: “Summer” or
“Early Flowering” Japanese, Pompons,
These are the garden representatives of the autumnal
flower which has appropriated to itself the name
“Chrysanthemum” without further qualification.
Though it is not possible to produce in the open
air the enormous blooms of the shows, it is easy
to grow plants with a wealth of moderate-sized
flowers, infinitely finer in general effect than
the pinched and trained specimens of the fancier.
There has been during the last five or six years
a great increase in the attention given to out-door
chrysanthemums, and a considerable improvement
in their quality; and it is to be hoped that this
may be one sign of the return of a sounder taste,
and of the ultimate disappearance of the gigantic
mop-headed flowers from the shows. The chief point
in growing out-door Chrysanthemums is to choose
the right kinds. It is no use to plant out cuttings
of the winter-flowering greenhouse varieties;
early flowerers, blooming not later than October,
must be obtained. Strong cuttings of these should
be put out early in May, in well-worked and rich
soil. They may be planted in mixed borders, but
they look better massed together. A sunny, somewhat
sheltered site will suit them better than a damp
shaded one; and if a wall or solid wooden fence,
with any aspect between east and west, can be
spared, they will do all the better for being
trained against it. It should be remembered that
they form their flowers in the season of autumn
dews and early frosts, and a small amount of shelter
and extra warmth will sometimes make all the difference
to their display. Under the bet conditions a strong
October frost will destroy all the bloom.
The culture after planting consists in keeping
cleat of weeds, watering and mulching if rain
fails, and nailing to walls, or tying out to sticks
in the open. There is no need to do any stopping
or disbudding whatever; but if an old plant should
send up twenty or thirty stems, they may be reduced
to a dozen of the strongest. After the flowers
are over, the stems must be cut down close to
the ground; the safest way to keep a stock of
plants through the winter is to fork them up carefully
and plant them closely together in a frame. The
lights, with a mat in the severest weather, will
be sufficient protection till spring. In light
soils and kindly aspects the plants will come
through the winter very well in the open; but
they cannot be regarded as hardy perennials; the
clumps soon deteriorate, and if left to itself
a good collection will altogether die out in a
few years. Cuttings should be taken from the stout
shoots which show about the crown in February,
dibbled in pots of sandy soil – four or
fiver in a 4 ½ inch pot – and kept
moist in a frame or cool greenhouse. They will
soon root; and when the tops begin to grow, they
must be potted separately in 4 ½ inch pots
of rich compost with good drainage; after being
hardened like other bedding-out stuff, they should
be planted out early in May.
The following is – at the time of writing
– a list of the best summer-flowering or
out-door Chrysanthemums; but every season there
are additions and improvements, and the gardener
must study the nurserymen’s catalogues and
the advertisements in the gardening papers.
Carrie, deep yellow.
Goacher’s Crimson, fine.
Horace Martin, strong yellow, fine.
Marie Masse, silvery rose, or rosy lilac.
Harvest Home, crimson and yellow.
Ambrose Thomas, bronze.
Mme. Desgrange, light yellow centre, paler outer
petals, fading to white; an old sort, but one
of the best garden chrysanthemums.
Ryecroft Glory, yellow, sometimes orange; an old
sort, but good.
M.E. Grunerwald, pink.
Georges Menier, deep crimson.
Source d’Or, orange, really a pot chrysanthemum,
but very effective in the garden in a fine autumn.
Robbie Burns, light pink.
F. Pele, dark red.
Mme. E. Lefort, reddish orange.
St. Crouts, pink.
White S. Crouts.
Piercy’s Seedlings, orange.