succeeding regularly on opposite sides of a branch.
Annual: plants which flower and
die in the same year as they are raised from seed.
Anther: the male organ of a flowering
plant, the head of the stamen.
Arrow-shaped Leaf: a wide base
with two pointed lobes directed downwards.
Axil: the angle between a stem
and the upper side of a leaf-stalk.
Basal: leaves at
the base of a plant.
Biennial: plants which flower
in the year following that in which the seeds
Bigeneric: a cross between two
species of different genera.
Botryoid: like a bunch of grapes.
Bract: a modified leaf beneath
Bracteole: a diminutive bract.
Bulbil: a small bulb attached
to the main bulb.
Calyx: the cup
or collection of sepals of a flower.
Capitulum: a close cluster of
flowers consisting of tiny florets packed together
on a common platform.
Carpel: a division of the ovary
or seed vessel.
Clasping leaf: when a stalk-less
leaf encircles the stem.
Cleistogene: flowers devoid of
a corolla. The flowers never open, but develop
into fruits by self-fertilization.
Compound: a leaf broken up into
Connate: when the bases of opposite
leaves are grown together.
Corm: a bulbous underground stem.
Corolla: the inner whorl of the
flower composed of the petals.
Corona: the outer edge of a radiated
Corymb: where the cluster of
flowers is brought more or less to the same level.
Cruciferous: with four petals
in the form of a cross.
Cyme: a shoot terminating in
a flower, then sending off side branches each
of which terminates in like manner.
and trees which shed their leaves in winter.
Decumbent: lying flat (usually
with tip raised).
Digitate Leaf: leaflets radiating
from the leaf-stalk.
Dimorphic: flowers that appear
in two forms such as the Primrose, in which one
form has a short style with anthers near the mouth
of the corolla-tube, and the other form has a
long style and anthers midway down the tube.
Disc: the central part of a radiate
flower in which the florets are tubular.
Entire Leaf: having
the margin undivided.
Ericaceous: belonging to the
Filament: the stalk-like
portion of the stamen.
Florescence: the blossoming of
a plant; the flowering season.
Floret: one of the small flowers
in a composite blossom; a floweret.
Floriferous: bearing flowers.
Funicle: a small stalk by which
the seed is attached to the placenta.
Genera: the plural
Genus: an assemblage of species,
which all agree in one or more important structural
Glaucous: a sea-green colour;
having a down of this colour.
broad, with two rounded lobes.
Hybridized: produced from two
Hypogynous: when petals or stamens
spring from beneath the base of the ovary and
are not attached to the calyx.
that the calyx or corolla is free from and below
Inflorescence: the arrangement
of grouping of the flowers on a plant: collective
Involucre: a series of bract-like
leaves below a cluster of flowers.
Keel: the lowest
petal of a flower, resembling the wings of a butterfly.
a fringed border.
Lanceolate: gradually tapering
towards the tip; lance-shaped.
Latifoliate: having broad leaves.
Leaflets: when there are several
succeeding leaves on each side of a midrib; a
Leguminous: bearing seeds which
split into halves like the pea.
Linear: slender; a leaf that
is long and very narrow with parallel sides.
Lobe: a division of a leaf.
plant, or one which dies after it has once born
Moraine: accumulation of stones
in a rockery.
Nectary: the gland
of a flower which holds the nectar.
Node: the point of juncture of
leaf and stem.
Nodule: a small knot or rounded
Oblong Leaf: twice
as long as broad with both ends rounded.
Obovate: egg-shaped with the
small end at the base; inversely ovate.
Offset: a shoot; a short runner
bending up at the end to form a new plant.
Order: a group of genera all
of which agree in some striking particular.
Oval Leaves: tapering to each
Ovary: the seed vessel.
Ovula: the seed of a plant before
it is fertilised.
Palmate: in the
shape of a hand.
Panicle: when the pedicels are
branched, supporting two or more flowers in a
Pappus: the calyx of composite
flowers; usually a whorl of bristles or silky
Pedicel: a flower-stalk supporting
several flowers without footstalks.
Peduncle: the stalk of a flower
or a cluster of flowers.
Pendent: hanging down.
Pendulous: hanging so as to swing.
Perennial: rootstocks that increase
and expand yearly.
Perfoliate Leaf: when the stem
passes through the base of a stalk-less leaf.
Perianth: flowers showing no
distinction from calyx and corolla; the floral
envelope or outer part of a flower.
Petals: flower-leaves forming
part of a corolla.
Petiole: a leaf-stalk.
Pinnate: leaflets of elongate
shape, forming pairs on opposite sides.
Pistil: the seed-bearing part
of a flower comprising the ovary, stigma and style.
Placenta: the part of the ovary
to which the ovules are attached.
Pollen: the fertilizing powder
or male elements held by the anthers by of which
the ovules are fertilized.
Pollinium: containing pollen.
Pubescent: hairy; downy.
arranged like a spike but with footstalks.
Radiate: a composite flower consisting
of a disc in which the florets are tubular.
Radical Leaves: leaves that rise
directly from the rootstock.
Ray: the outer part of a compound
Receptacle: the fleshy head of
the peduncle supporting the flower.
Recurved: curving outwards.
Reflex: bent or turned back.
Rhizome: an underground creeping
stem which sends out shoots above the roots below.
Scape: a flower-stalk
rising direct from the rootstock.
Sepal: a leaf of the calyx; the
outer whorl of the perianth.
Serrated: notched on the edge
like a saw.
Sessile: leaves or flowers connected
with the stem without footstalks.
Simple Leaf: an undivided leaf.
Spadix: an inflorescence where
the flowers are arranged round a thick fleshy
Spathe: the large bract that
envelops certain flowers before opening.
Species: individual plants bearing
certain characters in common.
Spike: bearing a number of flowers
Spreading: when the petals of
a flower are at right angles with the central
Spur: a projection, usually the
Stamen: the male pollen-bearing
Stigma: the organ holding the
pollen grains at the top of the pistil.
Stipules: small leaves, always
in pairs at the base of a leaf-stalk.
Stolon: a trailing stem which
roots and develops a new plant at intervals.
Style: the support for the stigma.
Succulent: with fleshy foliage
produced at the summit of a stem or end of a branch.
Tomentose: downy or cottony.
Trefoil: a form of leaf with
Tuber: thickened underground
Tubercle: a small swelling or
Tuberous: consisting of round
Umbels: a flat-topped
cluster of flowers having their footstalks of
nearly equal length and radiating outwards.
with different patches of colour; dappled.
Versatile: when the anther is
so connected to the filament that it swings freely,
as if balanced on a pivot.
Whorl: a ring of
leaves or flowers around a stem.
Zone: a band
or girdle of colour.
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