Aphis (greenfly) – It feeds on the young
shoots and leaves, causing them to curl up, and
early in winter it lays on the spurs. To control,
spray the trees in March with Abol-X or Sybol
(but do not use on blackcurrants).
Blossom weevil – It attacks the buds as
they open; the grubs upon hatching eat the stamens
so that they cannot pollinate. Spray in March
(or earlier), with petroleum-oil emulsion, but
not on Cox’s Orange or Newton Wonder.
Blossom wilt – Caused by the brown rot
fungus, it attacks all the top fruits, causing
the blossom to turn brown and die. It then works
down on to the spurs and branches, also causing
die-back. Wash with petroleum-oil in January but
not on Cox’s Orange or Newton Wonder.
Codling moth – A serious pest, the tiny
white grubs of which bury into the fruits leaving
a pile of brown dirt at the entrance hole. Spray
with derris each month from June to September
Scab – Usually affecting trees deficient
in potash, it attacks shoots, leaves and fruits
as black blisters. Apply a 2% lime-sulphur spray
in early spring. Spray Rival, Cox’s Orange,
Newton Wonder and Egremont Russet instead with
a 1-part-in-400 solution of murfixtan.
Winter moth – They are green and feed on
the blossom then on the leaves, often defoliating
the trees. Late in June, they fall to the ground
and pupate in winter, when the wingless females
crawl up the trees to lay their eggs. Grease-banding
the trees in October will prevent this.
Gall mite – This pest causes big bud, the
buds swelling with the pests inside and bearing
no fruit. Blackcurrants are sulphur-shy but will
take a 1-part-in-50 solution early in spring.
For Wellington XXX and Westwick Triumph, dilute
Cane spot – Attacks all cane fruits as brown
spots on canes and leaves which fall. Spray in
spring, before flowers open, with Bordeaux mixture.
Raspberry beetle – See raspberries.
Rust – It may attack the underside of the
leaves as orange spots, causing them to fall early.
Control by spraying with Bordeaux mixture early.
Control by spraying with Bordeaux mixture early
in summer and again in October after picking the
Bacterial canker – It affects mostly black
cherries, first as yellow leaf spots causing leaves
to fall, later as brown areas on branches. Spray
with Bordeaux mixture – 500g (1lb) copper
sulphate and 375g (¾ lb) slaked lime to
30 litres (6 gal) of water in spring before buds
Black fly – The tiny black eggs winter
on the twigs; the grubs, on hatching in spring,
feed on the leaves and new growth. Control by
routine spraying of the trees with tar-oil in
Fruit moth – The small green caterpillars
enter the flower buds and later bore into the
fruits, making them uneatable. The fruits fall,
the moths emerging in spring to lay their eggs
on the blossom. Dust with derris as the blossom
Scale – It also attacks vines, apricots
and peaches, appearing as white scale-like insects,
clustering on the stems and sucking the sap. To
control, spray with Malathion in early March.
Mildew – it appears in summer on the shoots
and fruits as a white powdery fungus. Later it
turns brown, peels off and falls to the ground
to winter there. Cut away and burn any infected
shoots. To control, dust plants with Karathane
in early May.
Mealy bug – The most troublesome vine peat.
It is white and produces masses of cotton-like
threads on the stems. It also attacks peaches
and apricots. Vine rods must be scraped each winter
to prevent the beetles hiding, and then the stems
painted with methylated spirit.
Vine weevil – The fat, creamy-white larvae
burrow into the soil and attack the roots. Exterminate
it by soaking the soil in March with Lindex solution,
or if growing in pots, add a little Gammexane
at potting time.
Winter moth – See apples.
Leaf curl – The most troublesome disease,
attacking the leaves and causing them to curl.
Later, they take on a powdery look and die. Spraying
with one-per-cent lime-sulphur at bud burst will
control to some extent.
Blossom wilt – See apples.
Mealy bug – See grapes.
Midge – The most troublesome pest, it lays
eggs on the blossom buds in spring, boring into
the calyx, the tiny grubs emerging to feed upon
the bud, which causes it to turn brown. To control,
dust with derris in spring.
Scab – Though the symptoms are similar
in appearance, scab on pears takes a different
form from that which attacks apples. All pears
are lime-sulphur-shy but all are tolerant of Bordeaux
mixture, so use this to spray them early in May
and again after blossom set, early in June.
Plum and gage
Brown rot – It attacks the fruit spurs,
the blossom (as blossom wilt) and later the fruits,
causing them to mummify on the trees. To control
it, spray with a one-per-cent lime-sulphur solution
in March (before the blossom opens) and with a
derris spray after petal fall.
Sawfly – As well as plums and gages, it
attacks apples and gooseberries when in bloom,
laying on the flower buds, the white caterpillars
burrowing into the buds and causing them to die.
As a precaution, spray with Lindex, apples at
petal fall, plums ten days later; or use derris
and a spreader.
Raspberry beetle – It also attacks blackberries
and loganberries, laying its eggs on the flowers.
After hatching, the white grubs eat into the fruits.
To prevent, dust with derris as the flowers open
and again when the fruit has set.
Raspberry moth – It winters in the soil
and emerges in spring as a silver-brown moth to
lay its eggs on the flowers. The caterpillars
eat the fruits, often entirely. To prevent, dust
with derris as for raspberry beetle.
Silver leaf – Its presence it shown by
the leaves taking on a silver appearance and the
trees soon die. It enters through cuts. For this
reason, pruning should be completed by mid-July
so that the cuts will ‘gum’ quickly.
There is no known cure.
Red and white currant
Clearwing moth – It lays on the stems in
summer. The grubs, upon hatching, burrow into
the wood to feed on the sap, causing the stem
to die. To control, spray with tar-oil in winter.
Aphis (greenfly) – Most troublesome of strawberry
pests, it feeds on the sap and reduces vigour,
allowing virus diseases to enter at the punctures.
To control, spray with Lindex in April before
the blossom opens, or with derris solution.
Botrytis (mildew) – Both are forms of mildew,
botrytis attacking the fruits, mildew the foliage
as a powdery white fungus. Dust with Orthocide,
containing 10% Captan, as soon as the first green
fruits have set. In areas of high rainfall plant
Red core – Caused by a fungus which attacks
the roots, causing them to turn red at the centre
and the plants to die back. There is no cure,
so, in low-lying, badly drained land, plant in
raised beds or plant resistant varieties.